A Post-colonialism millennial great piece of writing from Namibia diaspora
The COVID19 pandemic and its associated lockdowns have revamped the reading culture for people worldwide. This justifies why I had to spend the last quarter of 2020 reading novels from my personal home library. One such novel is The Eternal Audience of One by Rwandan born Namibian Remy Ngamije. It took 24 hours to read the 500 paged action novel and I even repeated to read it because of the thrilling Power Ranger narrative style by the astounding millennial young writer Ngamije.
Remy Ngamije’s debut novel The Eternal Audience of One was published in 2019 by Thabiso Mahlabe and the founder of Blackbird Books. Ngamije opines that his inspiration behind the transcontinental journey in the novel highlights that migration, and foreign places shape people’s “desires, fears, and ambitions” (Cheeky Natives 2020). He believes there is an attraction to the foreignness when a person is unsatisfied with home setting. Geographically another place seems to be the solution. The story is similar to the present migrant situation in Southern Africa and the world over. People are migrating in search of greener pastures. Citing United Kingdom in Harare North (2009) by Brian Chikwava and Edinburg Scotland in The Maestro, the Magistrate and the Mathematician (2015) by Tendai Huchu, these pastures are not green after all. Migrants face migration entanglements annexed to Geo-Spatial mobility, Afropolitanism, Millennium culture and above all, they are confronted with the same social, economic, and political issues as from their home countries. Hence, the novel tackles themes to do with migration, othering, third space, hybridity, culturalization, Afropolitanism, Cosmopolitanism to mention but a few.
Picture courtesy of arts 24
In exploring transcontinental migration Ngamije adds a different version of migrant diaspora narratives to that which mostly centres on migration to the first world countries. Above all, Ngamije a Rwandan migrant himself has experienced it at first hand and this necessitated an easy narration of the novel’s transnational migration. Therefore, the novel is written in the form of an autobiography. According to Johannesburg Reviews (2019), the novel fits easily into the genre known as the millennial novel. In what is fast becoming a millennial-bashing trope for certain critics. Millennial writers are often censured for not caring for the hierarchies of literature, and for their rootless, narcissistic, frenetic and neurotic narratives.
Above all, the novel explores cumbersome issues to do with relationships between migrant children and parents. Migrant children feel that parents want them to be obedient to their roots whilst on the other hand parents feel that technology has ruined their children’s behaviour. Therese, the protagonist’s mother feels that,
“diagnosis of the source of the moral infection which ran rampant throughout her offspring, were two things: television and music videos” (p.22).
Ngamije notes that the exploration of child- parent relationship is quite challenging, because it means confronting challenges parents face to raise and provide necessary upkeep for their children. Therefore, narratives of such migrant issues become very representative.
The novel that took two years to write has three separate titled parts and each part anchors around a Rwandan proverb that weaves itself meaningful into the story. The novel generously tells the readers of a ‘Great Plan’ and the plan is,
“The immigrant dream is to land in a place, secure work and an income, and love if one doesn’t have it, gain a foothold in society, and then, hopefully, build towards a new and better life” (Cheeky Natives 2020).
So, people think to secure a better life they should work harder, study harder, gain many qualifications as possible and try to become respected professionals. Above all they should secure a better future for their children. Accordingly, the Great Plan is not great at all because it does not work for the local citizen.
The novel was well received more in South Africa than Namibia because of the migrant issues that are discussed in the novel. The narrative has a sense of invasion on themes that Ngamije tackled being an outsider, what he calls himself being, “Rwandan by birth but Namibian by duration and naturalisation” (Cheeky Natives 2020). This led to some readers rejecting the novel as Namibian in anyway. Therefore, the reception was mixed.
The novel is about Seraphin Turihamwe and his middle-class, Kinyarwanda and English-speaking family living in Windhoek West; his mother, Therése a housewife, hardworking father Guillome a pharmacist, and two younger brothers Yves and Eric. His parents have high expectations for their children especially from Seraphin being the first born. From experience Seraphin’s parents believes bachelor’s degrees are not good enough, only masters and doctorate would work. They make sure that their children attend expensive private schools in Windhoek so as to better their chances of gaining entrance to the best universities and this works for Seraphin when he gets a scholarship at Remms University in South Africa.
The novel begins with a prologue by Seraphin when he says “Windhoek has three temperatures: hot, mosquito, and fucking cold” (p.ix) , but as far as the readers are concerned, it has more than that, it has rich , young and vibrant migrant stories. Seraphin a Rwandan born Namibian reveals to readers that; “Beginnings are tricky because there are no countdowns to the start of the start. There is nobody to point out that this-this moment right here- is where ‘it’ all begins” (p. 293). In an extract from the English essay that won Seraphin a scholarship to Remms University, he justifiably essayed that All the World’s a Stage–
“… upon which we perform for the eternal audience of one. Only the person who makes it to the end knows what everything was about. He who survives the thunder, gets to tell the tale. Life will only make sense right at the end, when the person who has been living it can look back and realise that the tragic nature of life is actually a comedy. I guess, then, that the whole point of life is to dive in, hold on, and hope that a flopped cake is worth the laugh at the very end” (p. 294).
Having penned such a brilliant novel Ngamije was shortlisted for the AKO Caine Prize for African Writing and in an interview noted that the nomination itself was like the prize itself as it “retrospectively justifies the risks and sacrifices taken to be a story teller” as it is a career that is arduous to pursue with challenges in Namibia that discourages writers (Saliha Haddad, 2020).
Concurring with Dela Gwala (2020), The Eternal Audience of One is a novel about family and relationships narrative. As the novel spans across six countries it never stops to question the idea and experiences of home. The novel is a transportive text that moves readers to different migrant cultures that discuss about third spaces othering and identity creation issues. It seems the story borrows these from post-colonialism theory and tenets of third spaces and hybridity by Homi Bhabha (1994, 1996) . The concept of hybridity is, “celebrated and privileged as a kind of superior cultural intelligence owing to the advantage of in-betweenness, the straddling of two cultures and the consequent ability to negotiate the difference.” (Hoogvelt 1997: 158). This is experienced by most second and third generation migrants such as Seraphin, his siblings Yves, Eric and the Rwandan born Namibians. In the end the characters end up having unique identities depending on their migrant generation. It is in the advent of othering that migrants begin to negotiate their identities. Seraphin being a second-generation migrant finds it easy to adapt to the new environment in Cape Town. His biggest challenge is he hates home and family as he believes he will forever live the Hollywood or Disneyland lifestyle he enjoys as a student in foreign homes. Whilst, on the other hand his parents, first-generation migrants fail to adapt and adopt, they however suffer from culture shock that force them to be strict with their children.
Ngamije reiterates that the lifeblood of the novel, always gravitated towards stories of how people experience elsewhere. As evidenced in the novel the protagonist Seraphin finds joy in Cape Town’s smoggy summer air but in reality, it makes him, “anxious about how little joy he found in spending time with his brothers, mother, and father. Home, to him is a constant source of stress, a place of conformity, foreign family roots trying to burrow into arid Namibian soil which failed to nourish him” (p.3).
The Eternal Audience of One is an exceptional contribution to African migrant literature canon as it talks about the current prevailing tropes. For Seraphin, migration seems to happen every time you leave what you call home and seek somewhere that you can call home being it a neighborhood, city, country, and psychologically even mindsets or socioeconomic classes. Every now and then he has to physically cross the Namibian and South African border to school in Cape Town. The feeling of crossing the border dampens his spirits,
“Back aboard the bus Seraphin’s spirits plumbed their regular dark depths whenever he contemplated going through the Namibian border post, a port of entry which was porous for white tourists and semi-permeable for black African nationalities who needed to prostrate themselves before the mercurial stamp-wielding gods of the immigration and boarder control” (p.9).
The novel spots Seraphin as he delves into the entanglements associated with adaptation and challenges of being new in post-colonial third spaces. Seraphin, as a child is displaced from the Rwandan home by the Hutu and Tutsi tribal war. Mentally he then houses The Great Seraphin Council and psychoanalytically has a Great Chamber in his head. The council initially had six Seraphins and each was colour coded according to Seraphin’s favourite Power Rangers; blue, red, black, green, white, and pink (p.325). The council convened 4 times. The first time Seraphin was ten years and his brother Yves’s chocolate had been snatched by Ralph the school bully. The situation was worsened when Ralph called Seraphin a refugee. The word refugee was a household taboo word. Seraphin had been taught by his parents that,
“If someone calls you a refugee, they are not being kind. They are calling you homeless and useless and cheap. We are not refugees, Seraphin, you understand? We have a home here, and another one in Rwanda. Maybe someday you will return to see it eh” (p.327).
So, the Council decides to beat Ralph and the resultant was that his parents were summoned to school for the fight.
The second council met when Dale a senior Remms University student called Seraphin ,Sarafina. All the council members are infuriated and fight Dale with slaps. The third time they met was when Soraya, Seraphin’s Indian girlfriend falls pregnant. This frightens the council because it does not want fatherhood before graduation. The incident divided the chamber and leads to the great fight which saw one Seraphin being killed by a sword. The white Seraphin suggested that they keep the baby whilst the rest preferred abortion especially the black Seraphin. The Black Seraphin blames the white Seraphin for being silent about the behaviour of the council,
“This right thing, what is it? . Where has his counsel been this past year when all of you have been taking us from one mistake to another, from one bed to another? Where was he then? Now that this thing has happened, he appears out of nowhere and tries to get us to agree to his sanctimonious madness” (p.331).
The fourth time was when he falls in love with Silmary, Richard’s girlfriend. It seems he has never fallen in real love and it is because of Silmary that he decides to return home knowing that they would meet one day.
Through Seraphin’s narratives we also see how his parents Guillone and Therese journey from East to Southern Africa. Seraphin likewise, moves from Kigali to Nairobi then Windhoek to Cape Town and back to Windhoek. All this period the identity creations are all nestled in his experiences. His parent’s love life in Brussels and Paris prior to migrating from Rwanda serves as the backbone of raising normal family properly.
Seraphin in the prologue of the novel calls Windhoek “a capital village”. He unpacks the unfriendly weather in Windhoek. As if this is not enough he also unbundles the socio-economic inequalities that are revealed through Guillone, his father’s failure to get a professionally attained job. Guillone clearly states that “If you’re not politically connected or come from old white money, then the best thing is to be a tourist” (p.ix). In this capital village “foreigners have no business being under-qualified or underperforming” (p.142). Hence, Guillone is forced to collect certificates, diplomas in business administration or international drug procurement and distribution each year in case he would run his own business in future. Being a migrant worker is not easy, Guillone has never been late for work, does not go on duty leave and above all,
“He smiled at everyone, at every task that was assigned to him, and any other task shirked by his colleagues to wind up, inevitably, and with deadline looming, on his organised desk” (p.142).
Guillone’s dedication at work is viewed with suspicion as he is believed to be working hard so as to usurp pending promotions. This forces his colleagues to temporarily pedal faster for a while. For Guillone, a University graduate, he woke up every morning with an ambition to satisfy his two mistresses ‘duty and deference’.
Seraphin also reiterates that the “city is called a city because the country needs one, but really, city is a big word for such a small place” (p.ix). Seraphin just like any second and third generation migrants experiences boredom growing up in such a small place mainly because he struggled with what he terms, “a place that doesn’t sound, look or feel like him, a place that feels choking in its suburban mediocrity and middle-of-the-roadness.” (p.ix). Seraphin Turihamwe’s re-telling of moving to Cape Town to attend university also feels intensely close. It’s the story of moving to a city that forms and schools you in adulthood in the best and worst ways as compared to his Namibian home small city Windhoek.The autobiographical styled novel details Séraphin’s last year as a law student at Remms University in Cape Town. He has misgivings about what to do next. With an English degree under his belt already, impending law degree, heavily weighing family’s expectations on his youthful shoulders, he is reluctant to return to Windhoek, a place that is ”…a constant source of stress” because of its “oppressive conformity that could not but fail to nurture his ambitions of wanting more than the life the Namibian capital had to offer Cape Town”, in contrast, had seduced Séraphin with promises of adventure. (Namibian Review 2020)
The movie style narrative of Cape Town life shows that Cape Town is the city to be although; Seraphin’s first encounter with the city was hesitant as,
“They were taken in the dingy, crowded and noisy air of Cape Town station, where trains, buses, and taxis converged in the morning in a rare mixture of race, class, and privileged as the city gobbled up its daily supply of labour. And again in the evening when it belched it back towards the surrounding suburbs” (p.204).
It is the taxi driver Idriss who first notices that Seraphin is a foreigner the first day he arrives in Cape Town,
“My brother, like I said, you don’t look like you’re from around here. We can always tell, us drivers. It is the way you walk, maybe. Or the way you ask for a taxi. You must tell, you must never ask” (p.209).
The sex filled sauce life; libido fuelled antics is what makes any university student in Cape Town get a jovial sense of being a privileged foreigner in the city. It seems women are the reasons Seraphin eagerly leaves Windhoek, and a woman is the reason for his reluctant return. The main events in the story relates to an exploration and expression of his sensuality. He narrates vividly exploits that encompasses the female student body, with names, without names, in the racial terminology of post-apartheid South Africa. He displays a preference for coloured and white women, when he says he was in ”a situation” with an Indian and a black woman he felt sorry for. The Namibian reviewer notes that, in the novel “the women’s skin-colours and appearances are more important than their functions as characters in an otherwise absent plot” (Namibian review 2020). However, for every story to hook readers as The Eternal Audience of One does it requires a great plot, and the inciting moment is when Seraphin finally decides that home is not efficient and sufficient for him. He decides to get outside the comfort zone by venturing into the lifestyle of Cape Town. Eventually at the end he decides to return to Windhoek the village city. That is a great plot for any millennial reader.
His mind stores the action trained team of Seraphins who are all colour coded Power Rangers, it is in the great musical chamber hall that decisions are constantly vetted;
“the Seraphins paused in the middle of whatever they were doing, mouths agape. Quickly the chain of command was shifted to a five-star general experienced in negotiating girls out of their clothes” (p.184).
Seraphin tantalises readers with the adventures of the High Lords of Empireland. It is a group of students who socialise together and survive the clubbing life of the Capetonians. The group has a way of “spilling stories without worrying about other people’s sensitivities” (p.240). And above all, the cafes serve what Seraphin describes as,
“Courage was needed to tackle the voluminous Invictus, while the Desiderata drowned in meats, cheeses, gherkins, tomatoes and all manner of desired things. The road least Taken was a particular challenge to carnivores who doubted vegetarian burgers….” (p.246).
Members of the High Lords of Empireland at Remms University are Richard, a white Zimbabwean and a Masters in engineering degree student. His wish is to go return to Zimbabwe and help the sanction crippled country after graduating. He happily reiterates,
“I thought about staying in South Africa, but I know I’d feel bad. Even though it’s tough there are people who’re trying to make it work over there.” (p.252).
His British passport secured him a place at Remms. However, after spending much time with Zimbabweans and other socialist-leaning South Africans, Richard renounces his British citizenship .Whilst, the protagonist Seraphin fails to comprehend choosing to walk through life with “reduced national and international citizenship” (p.252), contrary Richard easily renounces the first world citizenship.
Richard notes the reason for returning to Zimbabwe is because he is very optimistic about the turnaround events in Zimbabwe.
“ Nothing works. But given a choice, all of the Zimbabweans abroad would probably go back home. You’ll never understand how much Zimbos love Zim. When it’s all over they will return” (p.253).
It shows that although Zimbabwe is in a difficult phase of life with numerous challenges and yet these are just temporary setbacks.
Adewale, a Nigerian and a doctorate in microbiology student does not want to return to Nigeria, he highlights that, “If I went back to Lagos I wouldn’t survive” because he is now used to the pace of Cape Town life. The group call him Pastor Addy because of his Christian values that seem so ironic for a guy who is a night reveller. Yassen a muslim, is South African and wants to remain in his country after graduating. Bianca a coloured South African lesbian is fighting with her family to accept her sexuality and the only woman in the group. She is the only person who provides the necessary feminine front for their blackness especially when she manages to smuggle them into racist bars. She views men as,
“Men need to name things. To name is to own. And to own is manhood. So, men name things. It’s preferable to all of the other things they could do to prove ownership; peeing on things (all of the time), scratching on things (all of the damn time), or marking things in blood (I volunteered at an abuse counselling centre so I don’t want to hear any shit about this)” (p.441)
Godwin a Zimbabwean from Bulawayo, a Masters in finance student is also ready to go back to Zimbabwe regardless of the pathetic situations of the “empty supermarkets, the intermittent power, the censored newspapers” (p.258). It seems his countrymen are now running out of countries to run to. The new Southern African refugees have few countries still willing to take them and yet he is still optimistic like Richard. James, a Kenyan student is doing master’s degree in property law. He is also ready to move back to Kenya as he believes that he has been in South Africa long enough and prefers to work in a place without race drama, “In Nairobi a black man can be a black man” (p.260). He is clever to note that Cape Town does not make one a black man forever as it forces one to choose. He cites that it is he, “remain docile, play along, back up my supervisor’s ideas with my own, or challenge them and risk being branded a radical” (p.260).
Last member of the group is Andrew a white South African. He is called Kent Get None for being found masturbating in the boarding schools’ bathroom. This depressed him so much that he attempted to commit suicide. He struggled in school and had to change programs three times at Remms University and thanks to his family’s rich name. One wonders how he fits in the group. He never seems to have enough juice for ladies and is just, “the Half-A Romeo Guilietta” (p.417). His relationship with beautiful Silmary is a mystery and when he fails to satisfy her it proves that the reality still rules in his life, He Kent Get None. The rules at the racist nightclub that ban people who are not properly dressed are felt through Andrew, the white South African. Andrew does not make rules and yet the anger has to be directed towards him because all whites are not harassed at these bars. The friendly hatred between Andrew and Seraphin is worsened when Andrews’s beautiful girlfriend Silmary joined the knighting group. Silmary liked Seraphin at first sight and Seraphin being Seraphin he beds her and she becomes his latest sauce. Above all Seraphin is notorious for dating white girls only except for one Nigerian lady Nike. The Seraphin and Silmary saga ends up when Seraphin fights with Andrew. The group never see Andrew. Personally, Seraphin does not know what to do after university. It is obvious; he does not want to return home. Whilst every member of the group is certain about their University afterlife, he is not sure. He finally decides when his father visits him in Cape Town and he also finds true love in Silmary.
The novel manages to expose issues of racism, xenophobia and toxic class dynamics that take up residence on the streets, in the taxis, in the homes and night clubs of this tourist trap that Seraphin has adapted and adopted as home. As a university fresher he is initiated to university life when Dale a Remms senior student calls him Sarafina. This reminds him of the vendetta between the Nesquick and Milo black children back in Windhoek. The Nesquick kids would go and seek solace and comfort in the first generation playstation after losing a soccer match. Milo kids had no such comforts as they would visit the arcade with enough money to play just one game. Milo kids were tough and wiry and did not take any offence lightly or easily. Accidental stepping on a Milo kid’s sneaker or mispronouncing a name, “means only one thing: fight” (p.234). Dale receives a shocker when Seraphin hits him for calling him Sarafina. Seraphin is cautioned by the university warden, “You’d do well to learn when to hold your peace” and even when Seraphin insists that he won’t keep quite the warden advises him,
“ In time you will…You’ll be worn down. You’ll want friends, you’ll want to be invited to dinners, you’ll want to fit in, and then you’ll learn to keep quiet” (p.238)
He is further reminded that the Cape Town is called the Mother City because it is not a mother of foreigners, as
“we ‘re its unwanted children. You’ll learn to keep quiet and hope for its affection soon and very soon” (p.238).
The class struggle is highlighted by Seraphin when he ironically refers to the Remms law class as, a safe space where everyone is the same because they have the same; needs goals and worries. As they only talk about law studies only and nothing else. (p.347). Above all this has to be experienced by students when they have to learn what to say around white people. Failure to grasp it leads to being left in the cold and in law school that is a death sentence (p.349). The racial divide is also visible in the social structure of the city. The Great Chamber of Seraphins once discussed;
“There are white clubs, black clubs, and coloured clubs here, said the second Seraphin. And your enjoyment thereof and safety therein really depends on you being savvy enough to know which is which. In white clubs, don’t piss off the black bouncers. In black clubs, don’t piss off the dancers. In coloured clubs, don’t piss off anyone. And I mean anyone. You’re playing with your life” (p. 411)
The entanglements associated with identity creations in diaspora for Seraphin were instilled since childhood. At primary school level in Kenya Seraphin fought very hard to acquire the first seat in class. Failure meant one would sit on the floor for the rest of life. After a great struggle Seraphin beat Gina Patel to that first seat. Since then he purports to be on top. Bianca believes there are not enough seats in life because white people and black people live differently. She recommends that people should not pretend to be on the same level because this perpetuates the lie (p.364). Adewale reiterates that at work black South Africans are looked down upon by white South Africans. One Afrikaner guy would spend hours talking to Adewale about how black South Africans are incompetent to work with because they were lazy, useless, idiots, and imbeciles unlike migrant black guys who are hard workers and does not complain. (p.364)
The reasons white South Africans like black migrants are that they do not owe them any apology and yet black South Africans owe them everything. And for Godwin, that’s why he does not believe weak people can forgive.
“What’re you going to do when a weak person forgives you. Forgiveness from the weak is just words. Empty words. But when your mother or girlfriend forgives you, oh, then you know you need to change some shit in your life. Forgiveness, real forgiveness, requires the other person to remember, not to forget. When people forget the reason, they forgave the forgiven forget to earn their forgives. That’s why white people in South Africa get to treat black people the way they do. They don’t have anything to lose” (p.365).
Regardless of the reality of migrant life in Windhoek and Cape Town, The Eternal Audience of One is tantalising, a must read novel with its second-generation migrant youths and young adults. Below is the High Lords and Lady of Empireland’s list in order of membership and power ranking;
Seraphin Turihamwe, 24, the Roamin’ Catholic- Sauce level: SupremosBianca Fawzia Gabriels 25, the Bad Feminist, Sauce level: Unknown (possibly comparable to Seraphin’s)Godwin Moyo, 24, the Foulmouth from Bulawayo – Sauce level: masterRichard Fletcher, 24, the Tall White guy- Sauce level: MasterMohammed Yassen Ibrahim 24, the Quiet One- Sauce level – CaptainAdewale Bolaji 25, the Nigerain Sapeur- Sauce level: CaptainJames John Kimani 25 the W Gotta Go Home Guy – Sauce level: RookieAndrew William Kent 26 The White Guy- Sauce level: Rookie
Overall, The Eternal Audience of One is truly funny and exciting. The novel interrogates the notion of home by mirroring the life of migrants in both the ordinary and light hearted of everyday exchanges in the Turihamwe’s family. The story traverses many borders, boundaries both in its narrative content and scope. The story definitely continues to skip across national and regional barriers. Mphuthumi Ntabeni opines that the novel as a hitted up millennial work is the best medicine as it relentlessly interrogates the notions of exile, homesickness and the alienation of immigrant lives. Hence Southern Africa “has thrown its hat into the millennial fiction ring in a manner that is on par with its international peers” (Mphuthumi Ntabeni Johannesburg Review 2019). I personally recommend readers to read it alongside Tendai Huchu’s novel, The Maestro, the Magistrate and the Mathematician (2015) as the novel also interrogates issues of migrant identity creations in third spaces and migrant manoeuvring into modern globalised diaspora spaces infested with ‘othering’ and ‘hybridity’.
However, whilst the novel tackles faithfully cosmopolitanism of Cape Town, South Africa’s so-called Mother City, the Johannesburg review (2019) feels the depiction of the city is too often generated from the “rose-tinted perspective of an immigrant’s exotic hopes” and this denies the novel to also tell, the realities of “exclusionary elitism and the general atmosphere of conceit that the majority of Cape Town’s citizens live and breathe”. The review believes the style of writing is full of overworked phases and big words and clever sayings. Mainly because Ngamije is a millennial author. Hence, though the novel is rich in pace and propulsion, because of the use of postmodern pastiche— music, movies, emails, text messages and so on—It then shows that millennial books can be too crowded, lack the quietness that comes from the psychological introspection of literary maturity and yet hands up to the great narrative by Ngamije. He reminds readers of the legendary Zimbabwean writer Dambudzo Marechera. Marechera destroyed the first-generation English novel writing style with his vocabulary and sex stories in the novella The House of Hunger (1978). Psychoanalytical it seems he was obsessed sex writing.
Picture courtesy of Susannah Greenblatt 2020
Ngamije. R. (2019). The Eternal Audience of One. Blackbird Books, Sunnyside South AfricaCheeky Natives. (2020). https://cheekynatives.co.za/qna-with-remy-ngamije/Johannesburg Reviews (2019) https://johannesburgreviewofbooks.com/2019/10/07/the-jrb-daily-listen-to-the-new-episode-of-our-audio-show-read-this-featuring-remy-ngamijes-…Saliha. Haddad, (2020). https://africaindialogue.com/2020/07/22/ako-caine-prize-shortlist-a-dialogue-with-remy-ngamije/Dela. Gwala (2020), https://www.newframe.com/book-review-an-eternal-audience-of-one/Bhabha, H. (1994). The location of culture. London and New York: Routledge.Bhabha, H. (1996). Culture’s in-between. In S. Hall & P. Du Gay (Eds.), Questions of cultural identity (pp. 53-60). London: Sage Publications.Hoogvelt, A. (1997). Globalization and the Postcolonial World: The New Political Economy of Development. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.(Mphuthumi Ntabeni Johannesburg Review 2019). https://johannesburgreviewofbooks.com/2019/10/07/the-jrb-daily-listen-to-the-new-episode-of-our-audio-show-read-this-featuring-remy-ngamijes-…Namibian review (2020) https://www.namibian.com.na/194005/archive-read/Review-The-Eternal-Audience-of-One
Written by Elizabeth Dakwa Samakande
11 January 2021
Elizabeth is also currently a PhD student candidate with the Midland State University Zimbabwe. She holds a Master of Arts in English and Bachelor of Arts Honours in English from the University of Zimbabwe. She started script writing in 2019 with a pilot project she is working on at the moment.
She is a member of the Zimbabwe Film Industry Development Platform (ZFIDP) since 2019 and is the current ZFIDP Executive Committee secretary. Also, a member of Pan African film association, Azania Filmmakers Association Zimbabwe (AFA Zimbabwe) since 2021. Elizabeth is currently working on two projects that are still at story development stage; Mystical Nyanga and The Prince of Ngoniland. She is co- writing Mystical Nyanga with Mr Ezekiel Mutasa (Zimbabwe) and The Prince of Ngoniland is a collaboration with C.J Ndlovu (South Africa). Congratulations to Tete Eliza as she was recently (2022) accepted into the eQuality Impact Film Development Program.
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